Wednesday, December 24, 2008

Bone Cancer Types,symptoms And Treatment

Bone Cancer Types,symptoms And Treatment

Cancer of the bone or bone cancer is a general term used when cancer cells are seen in the bone. Cancer that begins in the bone is called primary bone cancer. It is found most often in the arms and legs but it can occur in any bone in the body. Children and young people are more likely than adults to have bone cancers.

Primary bone cancers are called sarcomas. There are several different types of sarcoma and each type begins in a different kind of bone tissue. The most common sarcomas are osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma.

In young people, the most common type of bone cancer is osteosarcoma, usually occurring between the ages of ten and twenty-five. More often, males are affected than females. Osteosarcoma frequently starts in the ends of the bones; where new bone tissue forms as a young person grows, usually affecting the long bones of the arms and legs. Ewing’s sarcoma usually affects teenagers, and is mostly found in people between ten and twenty-five years old. This cancer forms in the middle part (shaft) of large bones and most often affects the hip bones and long bones in the thigh and upper arm, but can also occur in the ribs. Chondrosarcoma is a type of tumor that forms in the cartilage (rubbery tissue around the joints) and are found mainly in adults. Other types of bone cancer include fibrosarcoma (malignant giant cell tumor) and chordoma. These are rare cancers and most often affects people over thirty.

The most common symptom of bone cancer is pain. However, symptoms may vary depending on the location and size of the cancer. Sometimes firm, slightly tender lump on the bone can be felt through the skin. Sometimes bone cancer interferes with normal movements and can also weaken or cause bones to break. Tumors that occur in or near joints may cause swelling and tenderness in the affected area. Other symptoms may include fatigue, fever, weight loss, and anemia. It is important to check with a doctor when you experience these symptoms, but these symptoms can also be caused by other less serious conditions.

Treatment for some bone tumors may involve surgery, such as limb amputation. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are effective in some tumors (such as Ewing's sarcoma) but less so in others (such as chondrosarcoma). After treatment has been done for bone cancer, it is very important that regular follow-up or check-ups are done with your doctor, to be sure that cancer has not come back and treat it promptly if it does. Check-ups may be physical exam, x-rays, scans, blood tests, and other laboratory tests.

People who have been diagnosed of bone cancer may have many physical, emotional, practical worries. They may worry that removal of a limb or other surgery will affect not only how they look but how other people would feel about them. Patients can be helped to overcome all these through special support groups for youngsters with cancer and their families. The American Cancer Society, for example, is a nonprofit organization that has many services for patients and their familes.

By: Jonathan Bell

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Signs Of Skin Cancer

Signs Of Skin Cancer

A survey of the American Cancer Society says that three out of every four
American families have at least one family member diagnosed with cancer. A cancer diagnosis affects not only the cancer patient, but also their family, friends & co-workers. Any kind of relationship with a cancer patient should provide them with some amount of support, proving you to be an understanding person, who is able to appreciate their situation.

A cancer diagnosis can be a real crisis; everything seems to going in a haphazard way. There is also a need to provide a superficial feeling of ‘the helping hand’, as you struggle to comprehend your own feelings. Escorting a cancer patient to navigate the maze of details like finding an oncologist, understanding their treatment options, furnishing health updates etc are a few of the important functions that you ought to perform.

Below are some tips to help you cope when someone you love is diagnosed with cancer:

• One way to keep the mind free from being vulnerable and besieged is to offer support. Taking things in a pragmatic way such as driving them to treatments or doctors’ appointments, running errands, baby-sitting, doing household work etc helps a lot. Ask them what they are most concerned about not being able to do.
• Some questions posed at the doctor if and when you accompany your loved one to their appointments will definitely not go amiss.
• Don’t get startled if any change occurs in their behavior and mood.
Cancer medications, sickness, and stress can cause your loved one to become arrogant or morose. For example: - Generally this kind of behavior is seen in skin cancer patients. So you need to maintain some amount of tolerance while dealing with a cancer patient.
• Keep them as active and independent as possible, which will help your loved one to regain a sense of confidence and control over their life.
• Be practical and realistic in terms of daily requirements. Get enough sleep, eat properly, and take some time off for yourself, because you will not be able to work in times of help or need if you are exhausted and sick.
Take care of yourself and your needs; it will be easier to meet the needs of your loved one.
• Ask other family members and friends to help. They will appreciate the opportunity to do so.
• Maintain a positive attitude.
• Accept that there are things that are beyond your control.
• Be assertive instead of aggressive. Assert your feelings, opinions, or beliefs instead of fuming, being belligerent or passive.
• Fight stress, learn to relax. Exercise regularly.
• Avoid confrontation; feel at ease with their answers.
Join a support group for friends and families of cancer patients.

Remember that you are not alone if someone you love is diagnosed with cancer. You are likely to experience a conflicting range of emotions, including disbelief, anger, relief, worry and even guilt. Fears of mortality, puzzling family roles, having your own needs met, and uncertainty about the future can surface when your loved one is diagnosed with cancer. These are customary feelings which may prove to be a problem. It will hence be beneficial to talk to others who are undergoing the same problems. These were some common points led down by American cancer society.

By: Deborah Smith

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Types Of Skin Cancer

Types Of Skin Cancer

Although there are several types of skin cancer, the most common are melanoma, basal call carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

Although melanoma is not found as often as other skin cancers, it is one of the most well known because it causes the most deaths related to skin cancer. Melanoma is hard to treat, with the most effective option being simply removing the part of the skin that is affected. However, this has to be done early in order to be at all successful. There are approximately 160,000 new cases of melanoma each year.

Approximately 48,000 people die of melanoma each year. Melanoma can be caused by exposure to the sun. This is particularly significant if a person has had a bad sunburn during childhood. White males usually get melanoma more than any other group, and people living in sunny climates are at higher risk. There is also a genetic risk factor.

Melanomas are usually noticed by detecting a change in skin moles. If there is any change to the mole, this might mean that a melanoma is present. Individuals should check their moles to see if the size, color or shape has changed.

They should also alert their doctor if a mole becomes itchy or starts to bleed. If a patient has a family history of melanoma, they should be examined by a doctor at least once a year as part of a preventative plan.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a tumor of the epithelium cells. It occurs in many areas of the body besides the skin including the mouth, lungs and cervix. Squamous cell carcinomas make up about 20% of all skin cancer cases.

It is most often caused by continuous exposure to sunlight over a long period of time. If an area is suspected to be cancerous, a biopsy will be done. If cancer is found, surgery will be done to remove the area.

The most common form of skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma. In the United States, there are approximately 800,000 new cases per year. It occurs most commonly in individuals who have fair skin and have been exposed to the sun.

There is also a genetic component, as this cancer also occurs in areas which are not exposed to the sun. Luckily, basal cell carcinomas rarely cause death and can be treated successfully in most cases. They can cause disfiguration when the cancer is on the nose, lips, ears, or eyes.

If you suspect that you might have skin cancer, you should contact your doctor or a dermatologist to have the area examined. It is also a good idea to have your doctor check out your skin during your yearly physical.

By: John Grimes

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Tuesday, December 2, 2008

Skin Cancer - Are You At High Risk For Skin Cancer?

Skin Cancer - Are You At High Risk For Skin Cancer?

If you have been reading newspaper or listening to news regularly over the past few years, you should have come across several warnings telling us to protect ourselves from skin cancer. Whilst there are many who do pay attention to these cautions, a shocking count of women still ignores them.

If you are amongst those women that ignore these warnings, you are likely to think that it's impossible for you to get affected by skin cancer. Again, you might feel it to be no harm, if you miss applying sun tan lotion while moving out.

Skin cancer is not a rare phenomenon, as people consider it to be. Whilst it's true that staying unprotected in the sun for short duration seldom leads to cancer, you might still face its wrath. Most women get affected with skin cancer after exposing themselves to the sun for a long period of time.

As a matter of fact, almost 75% of women diagnosed with it every year have a history of constant sun exposure. Although cancer might occur after severe sunburns, it usually results for many years in the sun.

Do you stay long in an open environment for long periods and get frequently bathed by sun without having any protection on your skin? If you do, then are you at high risk for skin cancer? Again, is there any spot on your skin, which has been bothering you for long? Can it be cancerous? If you even have a feeling that the spot can be cancerous, you should immediately schedule a visit with your doctor!

Definite diagnosis can only be made once a biopsy is performed.

Over 99 percent of women, who are diagnosed with cancer on their skin, have:

Basal cell skin cancer: Women developing these sores find that a pimple or a scab grows on their skin, bleeds or drains, and then scabs again. This cycle is seen to continue repeatedly and has been found tough to heal completely.

Squamous skin cancer: It looks similar to basal carcinomas. They also appear rough and have scaly patches on the skin, which do not disappear.

These 2 cancer types usually appear in nose and similar other regions of the skin, which frequently receives direct rays from the sun.

Skin of your nose is very much tender, and can be at high risk for non-melanoma cancer. Both basal cell and squamous skin cancer are treatable, if you choose to remove them surgically.

Usually, women develop non-melanoma cancers on their nose or face. However, sometimes melanoma occurs on their face too. Such cancer types spread rapidly and can be deadly, if it stays undetected and untreated in its initial stages. Sometimes, it's difficult to differentiate the two types.

This is the reason why you should see a doctor, whenever you notice something wrong with your skin.

If you have a belief that you are at high risks of skin cancer, you should immediately schedule appointments with your doctor. Skin cancers can be successfully treated, if they are caught in their initial stages.

Your life might totally depend on the early detection & diagnosis of a bothersome sore on the skin. So don't even think about delaying!

By: James S. Pendergraft

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Prostate Cancer Treatment
by Thomas Johnson

Cells of the prostate gland grow abnormally and invade the nearby tissues and other parts of the body. This uncontrollable growth of cells of prostate gland is called prostate cancer. The Prostate gland is located in middle of the bladder and rectum and its main function is to produce and store fluid which comes out from a man’s penis during ejaculation. The prostrate gland encircles the urethra tube that carries urine from the bladder to penis. Due to growth of cancer cells in the prostate, it enlarges and causing early symptoms of Prostate Cancer such as urination problem as well various other complications.

The abnormal growth of tissues is called tumor and they are classified as benign and malignant tumors. The benign tumors are not life threatening as they cannot attack the nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. In case of elderly men, the prostate gland often enlarges. This is usually not due to cancer, and it is called 'benign prostatic hyperplasia'.

Only malignant tumors are dangerous as it can spread to other parts of the body. Usually prostrate cancer develops slowly and there is also possibility of quick growth of cancer cells. As men have only prostate gland, it is the most common cancer of men. The early prostate cancer is identified in a routine test such as Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Digital Rectal exam (DRC).

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:

In the initial stage of prostate cancer, symptoms may not occur. In the severe stage, the following symptoms of prostate cancer occur

§ Trouble starting urination

§ Urinating much more frequently than usual

§ The feeling that you can't release all of your urine

§ Pain on urination or ejaculation

§ Blood in your urine or semen

§ Impotency

§ Bone pain

§ Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs
If prostate cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the pelvis, the following symptoms occur.

§ Swelling in legs

§ Discomfort in the pelvic area
Advanced prostrate cancer which spread to bones may show the symptoms like

§ Bone pain that doesn’t go away

§ Bone fractures

§ Compression of the spine

Treatment of prostrate cancer in India is not a great hurdle to a foreign patient. Our medical team will guide you to receive efficient treatment of prostate cancer at Apollo Hospitals. One will avail the treatment at an affordable price with free consultation with cancer specialists and no waiting periods. Medical treatments in India is now updated with modern infrastructure of treatments and medical resources.

By: Thomas Johnson

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Skin Cancer Types, Risk Factors, Signs and Treatment

Skin Cancer Types, Risk Factors, Signs and Treatment
By Dick Aronson

Skin cancer represents the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, surpassing lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. Tumors develop primarily on areas of sun-exposed skin, including the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms and hands, and on the legs in women.

Contrary to popular conception, skin cancer affects people of all skin tones, including those with darker complexions. Most skin cancers appear after age 50, but the sun's damaging effects begin at an early age, therefore protection should start in childhood in order to prevent skin cancer later in life.

Types of Skin Cancer

The main types of skin tumours are:

1. Melanomas are skin cancers that form in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment). Even though it is rare, malignant melanoma is responsible for 75 % of all skin cancer related death cases.
2. Basal Cell carcinomas are skin cancers that form in basal cells (small, round cells in the base of the outer layer of skin).
3. Squamous Cell carcinomas are skin cancers that form in squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin).

Rarer types of skin tumors are:

1. Neuroendocrine carcinomas which form in neuroendocrine cells (cells that release hormones in response to signals from the nervous system.) carcinoma of the skin.
2. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
3. Merkel cell carcinoma.
4. Kaposi's sarcoma.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for non melanoma and melanoma skin cancers include: unprotected and or excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, fair complexion, occupational exposures to; coal tar, pitch, creosote, arsenic compounds, radium, family history, multiple or atypical moles, and severe sunburns as a child. Anyone with a family history of skin cancer also has an increased risk of developing skin cancer.

Signs of Skin Cancer

Signs of melanoma may include: A large brownish spot with darker speckles located anywhere on your body, a simple mole located anywhere on your body that changes in color, size or feel or that bleeds, a small lesion with an irregular border and red, white, blue or blue-black spots on your trunk or limbs, shiny, firm, dome-shaped bumps located anywhere on your body, dark lesions on your palms, soles, fingertips and toes, or on mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina and anus.

Signs of basal cell carcinoma can vary depending on the type and may include skin changes such as a: Firm, pearly bump with tiny blood vessels in a spider like appearance (telangiectasias). Signs of squamous cell carcinoma include any: persistent, firm, red bump on sun-exposed skin.

Treatment

Depending on the type of skin cancer, dermatologic surgical treatments include: surgical excision; electrodessication and curettage which involves alternately scraping or burning the tumor in combination with low levels of electricity, cryosurgery and laser surgery. Other dermatologic treatments include radiation therapy and photodynamic therapy (a chemical is applied to the skin prior to exposure to a light source).

Mohs micrographic surgery is preferred for large basal cell carcinomas, those that recur after previous treatment, or lesions affecting parts of the body where experience shows that recurrence is common after treatment by other methods.

Skin cancer can be deadly, but nearly all skin cancer can be treated if it is detected and diagnosed early, however skin cancer can recur, so it is important that you examine your skin regularly for any changes and see your doctor for a check-up every six to 12 months

source : http://www.thearticle1.com/2008/11/skin-cancer-types-risk-factors-signs.html

Thursday, November 6, 2008

What Are the Options For Cancer Treatment?

What Are the Options For Cancer Treatment?
By Lester Lee


Cancer is a deadly disease that is rapidly affecting many people around the world. It is the number one killer claiming millions of lives globally every year. In the U.S. alone, more than a million new cases are diagnosed with cancer and more than half a million death from this disease yearly.

Cancer has overtaken heart diseases, stroke and infectious diseases as the number one killer. It has become such a huge problem that countries worldwide are spending millions of dollar annually in cancer research with the hope to discover the best treatment methods and cures for cancer. This article will discuss a few of the cancer treatment options that are available today.

The first and most obvious form of cancer treatment is surgery. In some cases, cancer can be completely cured through surgery, but this often is not the case. If the cancer has metastasized or spread to other areas of the body, surgical removal of the cancer is almost impossible. However, if surgical removal is possible it usually involves the removal of just the tumor or an entire organ if needed.

Radiation therapy is another type of treatment that is used for cancer. Radiation therapy is the use of ionizing radiation to kill the cancer cells. The radiation is applied either by an external beam, or internally with brachytherapy.

The radiation is often localized just in the place where the cancer is so it doesn't affect the other healthy cells around it. However, it does tend to affect the healthy cells close to the tumor, but these cells are more likely to recover and the cancer cells aren't.

Chemotherapy is another form of treatment that is often used with both surgery and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to attack and destroy the cancer cells. The drugs affected rapidly dividing cells, which is what cancerous cells do, however cancerous cells aren't the only ones that do this.

Chemotherapy has a tendency to attack the healthy rapid growing cells as well. The chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division or the duplication of DNA or the separation of newly formed chromosomes. This method of cancer treatment, although effective, have many undesirable side effects as well.

These three are the main kinds of treatment used to treat cancer. There are other not so common but highly specific cancer treatments such as targeted therapies, immunotherapy, hormonal therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, gene therapy, vaccine therapy and symptom control therapy.

Natural treatment methods, such as acupuncture, acupressure, herbal therapy, natural food diets, vitamins supplements and so forth are also gaining popularity in the treatment and cure of cancer. There are many documented proof to show that these methods cured many cancer patients including those at very terminal stages.

source : http://ezinearticles.com/?What-Are-the-Options-For-Cancer-Treatment?&id=1651051

Monday, October 27, 2008

The Many Types of Skin Cancer

The Many Types of Skin Cancer
By Sandy Griffin


The three basic types of skin cancer include:

-Basal cell carcinoma
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Malignant melanoma or melanoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma
The most common of all the three types of skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma is often referred to as non-melanoma skin cancer. It is easily detected and it first appears as a small lump on those areas that are exposed to the sun and the air, such as the head, neck and hands. This form of cancer rarely spreads to the other parts of the body and it has a very high cure rate. People with light-colored skin and light eyes are more prone to this form of cancer; basal cell carcinoma is almost never seen in dark-skinned individuals.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Many of the distinguishing characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma are similar to that of basal cell carcinoma; the only difference being in the location of the symptoms. The symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma are typically present on the face and more commonly in the areas near the ears or lips. This form of cancer is also more prevalent in light-skinned individuals the success rate of its treatment is very high. However, squamous cell carcinoma has a higher tendency to spread and in its advanced levels, it is likely to spread to the lymph nodes. It is scaly and reddish in appearance.

Malignant Melanoma
Malignant melanoma, one of the rarer but most treacherous of all kinds of skin cancers is located in the pigment-producing part of the skin. Like all other skin cancers, malignant melanoma is also predominantly found in light-skinned individuals.
This form of cancer spreads rapidly to all other parts of the body via the blood stream and the lymph nodes. Though it is primarily a form of skin cancer, melanoma is sometimes present in the other internal parts of the body too. Melanoma is responsible for about 75% of all deaths resulting from skin cancer.

Early detection of malignant melanoma symptoms is critical in restricting the rampant spread of this disease. People who are more at risk for malignant melanoma include:

-Individuals who have red or blonde hair
-Individuals who have blue eyes -Individuals who have freckles
-Individuals who do not acquire a tan easily
-Individuals who have a family history of melanoma
-Individuals whose siblings have had melanoma

Prevention is better than cure for this form of cancer and it important to learn to tell the difference between moles that are indicative of melanoma and those that are not.

Skin cancer is most rampant in Australia, followed by South Africa and it is the second most common form of cancer in the United States. If you are a citizen of any of these nations, it is absolutely essential to learn to recognize the different forms of skin cancer.

Checking your skin for unusual signs that could indicate skin cancer should part of your daily skin-care regimen as early detection could result in higher success of treatment

source : http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Many-Types-of-Skin-Cancer&id=1472975

Friday, September 19, 2008

Chemotherapy Medications

Chemotherapy Medications

By Kate Savage

Chemotherapy is the treatment used to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs disturb the life cycle of cancer cells and prevent their reproduction. It may be used as single drug or in combination. Chemotherapy treatment may be used before, after or alongside with surgery, biological therapy, radiation therapy and bone marrow transplants.



There are various ways to give medications such as oral medications that are given in pill and liquid form to sip and some can be applied directly on the skin as creams, patches and lotions. Others drugs are given as injection that is injected using syringe and needle into the muscles and body cavity or directly into cancerous area.


The gadget like needle, used for medication is usually inserted into a vein in the arm or lower arm when the treatment session begins and can be removed at the end of session. The other gadget is the catheter, which consists of a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into a larger vein of chest, spine, arm, abdomen and pelvis.


Catheter is of several types in which some are thread up towards the heart and some with several openings. Catheter may be used for long term chemotherapy to minimize the number of needle sticks that patient must need to continue. There is another way or gadget used to treat the cancer that is the port, in which the catheter is attached used to small metal or plastic disc placed under the skin.


Chemotherapy treatment can be given in a patient's home, physician's office, hospital or clinic. It is given as an outpatient or as an inpatient. Sometimes, chemotherapy needs high doses of specific areas that are known as regional chemotherapy. There are some examples of regional chemotherapy such as Intra- arterial (Artery), Intraplural (chest), Intravesical (bladder), Intraperitoneal (abdomen) and Intrathecal (central nervous system).


Chemotherapy treatment depends on the type, stage, current health of patient and the quantity of dose to be given. You can use combination of drugs that help to increase the effectiveness. Chemotherapy may cause some side effects like omitting, nausea, weight loss, hair loss, memory loss, mouth sore etc. These side effects may be temporary or permanent.

source : http://ezinearticles.com/?Chemotherapy-Medications&id=1480744

Tuesday, June 17, 2008

How to Check for Skin Cancer Symptoms

How to Check for Skin Cancer Symptoms
By eHow Health Editor

When checking for skin cancer symptoms, it is important to know the three basic types of skin cancer, and how to correctly identify them. While cases of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are increasing every year, early detection is the key to success in treatment.

By frequently checking your body for changes in moles, lesions, or unusual changes in your skin, and by immediately reporting any concerns to your dermatologist or oncologist, you may help to reduce your chances of having a life-threatening condition.


Know the Different Types of Skin Cancer

Step1

Educate yourself about melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, which usually takes the form of a mole which is either irregularly shaped or is changing. People who spend a lot of time with their skin exposed to the ultra-violet rays of the sun are at risk for melanoma.

Step2

Know about basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer, which afflicts 800,000 people per year. This type of skin cancer happens almost exclusively to caucasians, and is marked by thickening patch of skin.

Step3

Research the facts about squamous cell carcinoma, usually identified as a large reddish patch of skin that becomes scaly, crusted or ulcerated. 160,000 people per year are diagnosed with this form of skin cancer.

Check for Symptoms of Skin Cancer

Step1

Ask a doctor or loved one to assist you by checking the areas of your body you cannot see yourself.

Step2

Check all moles for symptoms such as asymmetry, border irregularities, color variation and increasing diameter. If a mole has changed significantly in any way, have it checked by a dermatologist.

Step3

Follow up with your doctor over any concerns that you have. Ask the doctor whether you you fall under any high-risk categories for skin cancer.

Tips & Warnings

Be aware of your patient rights, according to the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities, in regards to treatment options and participating in all treatment decisions.

The most significant lifestyle changes you can make to help prevent skin cancer are to use sunscreen with a high SPF whenever you are out in the sun and to avoid tanning beds.

The prospect of having skin cancer can be quite stressful for most people, so it is important to be prepared for any emotional or psychological issues that may occur before or during treatment. Ask your doctor about any medications or counseling that may assist you through the treatment process.

source : http://www.ehow.com/how_2033573_check-skin-cancer.html

Wednesday, April 16, 2008

Learn How To Prevent Lung Cancer

Learn How To Prevent Lung Cancer
by Michael Russell

Lung cancer is a malignant disease commonly associated with people who smoke heavily.

It is estimated that a higher number of men are suffering from this form of cancer.

Lately however, the number of women affected with lung cancer is steadily catching up with the number of men affected with the disease.

Diet is an important measure in preventing lung cancer.

The risk of developing lung cancer for smokers and non-smokers alike are lowered when they eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily.

Among the most important fruits and vegetables that should be included in your diet are apples, tomatoes, melons, mangoes, dark leafy greens and onions.

Apple and onion are rich in cancer-fighting flavonoids. According to a study conducted in Finland, people who consume more apples are 58 percent less likely to develop lung cancer than those who do not eat apples at all.

Try to add some tomato sauce in your cooking. Research shows that tomatoes, especially cooked ones, seem to exhibit protective properties against lung cancer.

Taking in high amounts of beta-carotenes can also lower the risk of lung cancer in smokers.

Carotenoid compounds are found in certain produce like peaches, mangoes, melon, squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkins and green leafy vegetables.

Beta-carotene supplement however should be avoided.

A study conducted by a Finnish group indicated that an 18 percent rise in lung cancer cases was seen in heavy smokers who were taking beta-carotene supplements.

Moreover, the National Cancer Institute researchers also stopped their study on the effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene after smokers who were taking the supplements showed 28 percent more lung cancer than those taking placebos.

Another important measure in the prevention of lung cancer is a routine medical check-up. This should also be accompanied with prophylactic medicines and supplements.

An x-ray is necessary especially for those people who smoke and are at the age of 50 and above.

A yearly chest x-ray will be especially beneficial for those people who are at high risk of developing lung cancer.

A chest x-ray is a preventive measure done to screen for lung cancer. A routine chest x-ray will enable doctors to diagnose lung cancer early so that proper treatment procedures will be implemented.

Aspirin has been shown to ward off lung cancer especially when a dosage of 81 to 325 mg is taken daily.

However, you should consult your doctor about the prophylactic advantage of taking aspirin since this form of therapy comes with known side effects.

Selenium that is often found in multivitamin and mineral supplements also shows properties that ward off cancer especially when taken over a long period of time.

Some studies show that those who are taking selenium supplements exhibit about 46 percent lower lung cancer rate.

Vitamin C is also good in the prevention of lung cancer.

Some studies suggest that people who regularly take 140 mg or more of vitamin C have lower risk of developing lung cancer than those who only get 90 mg or less of vitamin C dosage.

Lifestyle change is also vital in the prevention of lung cancer.

People who smoke should consider quitting the habit.

When a person stops smoking, his lung cancer risk is lowered by almost half in 10 years.

Finally, the second most common cause of lung cancer is exposure to radon, a colorless gas found in the ground.

Test your home for any presence of radon.

You can either buy a do-it yourself kit to check for radon which is available in your home supply stores or you can hire a professional to do it for you.

Tuesday, April 8, 2008

What Is Skin Cancer? Risk Factors and Detection

What Is Skin Cancer. Risk Factors and Detection
By Adam Hefner

Our bodies are made up of individual cells which are designed to reproduce, allowing for growth and an extended, healthy life.

By serving their purpose, reproducing, and dying, they leave new, fresh, and fully functional cells to continue to perform bodily functions.

After many cycles of reproduction, due to natural cellular degeneration over time or outside influences causing mutations, some cells fail to reproduce and die at the normal rate, and can start reproducing too much and form growths.

These growths may be benign, or they may be malignant, in which case they are referred to as cancerous tumors.

Ultraviolet radiation can cause skin cells to mutate and create growths, some benign and some malignant.

What is a benign growth and what is skin cancer is a question you should ask your doctor.

If you have a rash, lump, or wound that doesn't seem to heal, this could be a cancerous tumor.

Rather than ignoring these symptoms, you should see a doctor and find out what they are, although something like this should be an obvious reason to talk to a doctor regardless of the cancer risk.

The symptoms mentioned above may indicate squamous or basal cell carcinoma, which are the two most common nonmelanoma skin cancers.

Squamous cells are the top layer of the skin.

They are round and flat and protect against the environment. Beneath this layer of cells are the basal cells, which can also form tumors.

Most people have an average of 10 to 40 moles or nevi, which are benign, noncancerous growths.

They often appear in the face, back, and arms, places which are frequently exposed to sunlight. Nevi are growths formed from mutated melanocytes, the cells which pigment the skin.

These are located between the dermis, where sweat glands and hair follicles are located, and the epidermis, made up of basal and squamous cells.

Melanocyte growths which turn cancerous are called melanoma.

Check your skin regularly for any abnormalities, especially if you have dysplastic nevi, which are irregularly shaped moles.

If these nevi change in any way, including in size, shape, color or texture, or if the surrounding tissue becomes irritated, you should consult a doctor.

If a new dysplastic nevi forms on your body, a doctor may want to do a biopsy to see if it is cancerous.

This is generally done by removing the entire mole, and this may be all the treatment you need to get rid of the cancer.

If the cancer is allowed to metastasize, additional tumors may form in other parts of the body by wandering cancerous cells which reproduce elsewhere, so early detection is extremely important.

You should not expose yourself to UV radiation if you can avoid it.

When you go out in the sun, you should use sunscreen or protective clothing.

Do not tan yourself too much and avoid sunburns, and do not use tanning beds.

New research shows that tanning beds are an important risk factor for melanoma, which is the most serious form of skin cancer.

Ask a doctor if you have any suspicious irregularities in your skin, and familiarize yourself with your skin and moles so you can do self-examinations.

Any irregularity should be examined by a doctor, who can tell you what is skin cancer and what may be a normal growth or another condition

Monday, March 24, 2008

How to Prevent Mouth Cancer

How to Prevent Mouth Cancer By eHow Health Editor

Cancer of the mouth, or oral cancer, refers to cancer that occurs in the tissues of the mouth that include the tongue, lips, gums and cheeks. Mouth cancer is one of the most serious cancers, but is also one of the most preventable. With only a few known major risk factors, oral cancer is one of the rare cancers that people can avoid by making good choices about diet and the use of tobacco and alcohol.

Know the Risk Factors for Mouth Cancer

Step 1:

Recognize that the use of tobacco is by far the greatest risk factor for oral cancer. Do not use chewing tobacco, cigarettes, cigars or pipes if you want to prevent mouth cancer.

Step 2:

Do not put yourself at risk for mouth cancer by consuming large amounts of alcohol. Drinking large quantities of alcoholic beverages is associated with increased risk for mouth cancer.

Step 3:

Know that age and gender can also be correlated with the risk of developing oral cancer. The risk of getting cancer of the mouth increases in people over the age of 45, and the cancer occurs more commonly in men than in women.

Step 4:

Be aware that exposure to the sun can be a risk factor when it comes to contracting cancers on the lips.

Take Other Measures to Prevent Mouth Cancer

Step 1:

Use lip balms with UV protection to lower your risk. In addition to avoiding the major risks associated with tobacco and alcohol use, protect yourself by using sunscreen on and around your lips.

Step 2:

Eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and avoid eating foods high in fats and sugars.

Step 3:

Have your doctor and dentist check for signs and symptoms of mouth cancer during regular checkups and physicals, especially after the age of 45

Tips & Warnings
  • If you believe that you might be at risk for oral cancer or think you may have symptoms of mouth cancer, you should see a physician.
  • Ask your physician about self examination procedures to recognize symptoms of oral cancer.
  • Remember that as a patient, you have the right to be informed of all your treatment options and be a decision maker in the treatment

Sunday, March 23, 2008

Sunlight and Skin Cancer

Sunlight and Skin Cancer by Michael Russell

Sun "light" is actually a form of electromagnetic radiation. There are three types of electromagnetic radiation that are emitted by the sun that make it through the atmosphere and reach us; ultraviolet radiation, visible light and infrared radiation.

It is the ultraviolet radiation that makes us feel warm when we are out in the sun but it is also the form of sun's radiation that is believed to cause skin cancer. On the scale of electromagnetic waves, visible light is only a very narrow band of waves in the middle between ultraviolet and infrared radiation.

If you think about visible light as being the color red at the low frequency end and going up to the color violet at the high frequency end, ultraviolet is the next higher up form of radiation from the visible color violet and infrared is the band of waves just down from the visible color red. You can't see either ultraviolet or infrared radiation.

Except for rare cases, visible light and infrared radiation from the sun are not dangerous to your health. Ultraviolet radiation however can be very dangerous to your skin and is a significant contributor to skin cancer.

There are 3 types of ultraviolet radiation: UVA (tanning rays). UVB (sunburn rays) and UVC (dangerous cancer causing rays). UVA is the shortest frequency and longest wavelength of the three and is not filtered out by the earth's atmosphere at all.

Since it is not filter out UVA is pretty much the same intensity from sunrise to sunset. Glass windows do not block UVA. It used to be thought that UVA was not a danger as far as skin cancer is concerned but recent studies indicate that the cumulative effect can be just as dangerous as UVB and UVC.

UVB is partially filtered by the earth's ozone layer and is at its greatest intensity at noon. It is currently the most dangerous form of ultraviolet radiation from the sun and can burn, wrinkle, age your skin and cause skin cancer. UVB and UVC cannot go through glass. UVC is currently completely blocked out in the atmosphere by the earth's ozone layer. But as the ozone layer recedes there is a danger that more and more UVC will not be filtered out and contribute to the spread of skin cancer.

Several government agencies and weather reporting services have developed a UV Index to help people avoid the dangers of UV radiation. The UV index is a number from 0 to 11 or more that is a daily forecast of the predicted risk if you are out in the sun too much. A UV index of 2 or less means the risk is low, wear sunglasses if it is bright out and cover up if out for more than an hour.

If the UV index is over 6 many weather reporting agencies will issue a UV Warning asking that you actively reduce your exposure to sun and stay indoors between 11 AM and 4 PM. In most northern climates, the UV index rarely gets to 6.

The skins reaction to UV radiation varies widely from person to person. Heredity, skin coloration and exposure to industrial chemicals are all considered to be contributing factors. However, there is little doubt that the more time you spend out in the sun the greater is your danger of getting skin cancer.

Striving For Skin Cancer Cures

Striving For Skin Cancer Cures
by Adam Hefner


More people are diagnosed with skin cancer in the United States than any other type of cancer. Survival rates are excellent if the condition is found and treated early in its development. Early treatment offers the best possible chances for skin cancer cures.

Doctors define success in cancer treatment based on whether a person is alive and without signs of cancer after five years from the date on which they were diagnosed. The cure rate, also known as the five-year rate of survival, varies with the type of skin cancer with which a person is diagnosed.

Individuals diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma, for instance, have the highest survival rate. This is because the cancer is so slow-growing and rarely spreads beyond the initial site. These persons can anticipate a treatment success rate of greater than 99 percent.

In comparison, people who have had squamous cell carcinoma can anticipate a five-year survival rate of slightly more than 95 percent. Although this cancer is a nonmelanoma, and fairly slow growing, it can spread to the lymph nodes and blood if not treated early.

If a person diagnosed with malignant melanoma is treated when the cancer is still in one location, the cure rate is about 88 percent. About eight in ten persons detect their cancer at this point. If the cancer has already begun to spread to lymph nodes, chances of survival are only about 58 percent. If the cancer has metastasized, or spread to other major body organs, about one in ten persons will be alive five years after diagnosis.

Doctors use different treatments to attempt to cure people with skin cancer. Some cancers are more easily cured than others. Basal cell tumors, for example, are typically so small that a person is considered cured after the tumor is removed. Squamous cell cancer, however, may require additional treatment, especially if the cancer has spread. Chemotherapy and radiation are the most common forms of treatment.

Because melanoma is so difficult to cure, physicians often rely on a combination of medications, radiation, chemotherapy, or other procedures that are undergoing clinical trials to attempt to cure this cancer. Some of these investigational treatments include photodynamic therapy and biological therapies.

Diagnosing skin cancer early is extremely important. Skin cancer cures are most likely when the cancer is found early. Indeed, some doctors believe that more than 99 percent of all people who develop skin cancer can be cured if the cancer is discovered early and treatment is begun immediately

Proper Cancer Pain Relief

Proper Cancer Pain Relief by Fatima Edris


We hear nearly everyday there is another person who has been diagnosed with one type of cancer or another. Even so, the topic has always been left undiscussed. There could be a few reasons contributing to this. The common reason is many of us feel that by mentioning, discussing or showing concern to the cancer patients as being not sensitive, for fear that the motions will be taken differently by the patients.


One thing for sure, we have to know that the pain they may be experiencing right at the time may be small, but as the cancer progress, the need for proper cancer pain relief grows and grows until it is all ended either because it is cured or until the person passes away. The cancer pain relief medications used are used somewhat to cover the pain and not to get well from the problem.

What are The Cancer Pain Relief

For most people they just know particular few types of medications that are prescribed for cancer pain relief and one of those given will most often work for the patient. There are many of them who will get or have achieved excellent results for them.

However, when the person suffering from cancer has been given a medication that does not work, then they are closely monitored and selectively given another type to try in the hope that it will be effective.

The emotional trauma that comes along for those with cancer is so great that it is paramount to make them physically as comfortable as possible through the cancer pain relief that have been proven working.

When They Are Near the End

We have many friends or relatives who have cancer, and we will always hope that they will recover and have access to cancer pain relief. Even though there are millions of people who recover from their cancer, there are always going to be a number of people who just could not make it.

As the cancer progresses further and further, the person will be in more pain and it will ultimately get to a point that patient claim they would just rather quickly pass then suffer the pain any more. For these people, in spite of their outlook is not having the chance to survive it, they are still in need of some effective cancer pain relief.


The cancer pain relief is giving the patients chances to be feeling a little better and spending more time with friends and family till their last days.

Frequently, for people who find themselves in that situation, there seems to be little effect from the cancer pain relief medications that are normally given and this is when doctors start to give a lot more medications at a lot higher doses in hopes of doing something.

These people are commonly given so many medications that end up not working; their bathroom cabinet could begin to parallel to a pharmacy. For these people, it is just more about finding something, anything that will help them get through the few days they have left so they can make the most of them.

Delta-24-RGD - A Virus Found to Target and Eliminate Cancer Cells of the Brain

Delta-24-RGD - A Virus Found to Target and Eliminate Cancer Cells of the Brain By Derek Kroll

Cancer is quite a hot topic in the scientific research community today, due to the obvious lack of knowledge underlying certain biological processes. Without the mastery of these biological pathways, it is not feasible to devise surefire treatment and/or prevention methods against specific types of cancer. One does not have to look very far to find criticism or an attempt at exploitation of these biological voids by the media. Despite the frequent scrutiny, the field of oncology (the study of tumors/cancer) has improved exponentially in understanding the manifestation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer. A simple look at the declining morbidity rates of cancer patients over the last few decades should provide some comfort even to the most skeptical individuals.

Despite the frequent advances in cancer research, the findings manage to fly under the radar of mainstream media. It lies within these small findings, which are the basis of future treatments and cures. Recently, a group of researchers came one step closer to solving their life saving puzzle.

The study, conducted by researchers at the UT-Houston M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and funded by the National Cancer Institute, analyzed the destructive effects on brain tumor stem cells of mice by introducing a tailored adenovirus (Delta-24-RDG). By tailored adenovirus, I mean a specific virus produced by scientists. This was tested on the most aggressive brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, which is known to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. The particular intrigue in this project stems from their attempt to build on well-known and studied research performed in 2003.

The 2003 study found that Delta-24 eliminated brain tumors in 60% of mice. The recent study however, was conducted on the actual stem cells that drive the continued tumor growth postoperatively, hence the testing on glioma stem cells. This led to a direct comparison in survival time between the control group (received no intervention) and the treatment group (received Delta-24 injection). The survival time of the mice who received treatment nearly doubled that of the control group. The result is obvious: the mice that received the injection of the adenovirus demonstrated prolonged life-spans. The success of the study did not simply end there.

The researchers attempted to analyze more than mere cause and effect. They sought to gain information on the actual physiological process contributing to the death of the stem cells in the brain. For the first time, adenovirus-mediated cell death (by autophagy) was noted as the direct method of cellular death in tumor stem cells of the brain. It was also noted that the therapeutic virus did not alter normal brain tissue. This finding carries with it tremendous hope because the tumors formed in the brains of these mice closely resemble brain tumors in humans.

This resemblance lies in their irregular form and invasive metastatic, or spreading, properties. The study did mention the limitations of these findings and the need for further research, but it does postulate an exciting and possible method of cancer treatment, which may not be limited to the brain. This study only hints at the remarkable and constant efforts put forth by cancer researchers. One must remember that our race for a cure is not a sprint, but an ongoing marathon that must be carefully and methodically ran.

Can Milk Thistle Prevent Liver Cancer

Can Milk Thistle Prevent Liver Cancer by Nicole Cutler


Toxic substances surround us every day, in our food, water, medications, and especially the air we breathe.


These toxins are extremely detrimental to the health of your liver, and your choice of liver support supplements can drastically affect this very important organ.


Milk thistle has long been known for its liver supportive and protective qualities, and is the number one herbal supplement prescribed for most liver ailments.


It has proven in various clinical studies to have a profound effect on the progression of fibrosis, and has been quite effective in slowing the rate of advancement of liver damage.

Most people are aware of the stages of liver disease: inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure.


If not treated in the early stages, liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) can develop.


Milk thistle has been proven to help protect liver cells against further damage from harmful toxins, which speed up the progression of the above stages of liver disease.


Supplementing with milk thistle in the early stages can keep the disease from quickly advancing towards liver cancer. In addition to keeping liver cells healthy, milk thistle can also help this vital organ regenerate new liver cells, in an effort to prevent any additional scar tissue from developing.

Milk thistle, or silymarin, is made up of three main components - and silybin is the most beneficial to the liver.


This highly concentrated part of milk thistle has the most therapeutic effects on the liver.


Research shows that not only is milk thistle anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory, but it has potent antioxidants and can block toxins from invading the liver.

Because it is an herbal supplement, the FDA has not approved milk thistle as a treatment for any condition or disease, including liver cancer.


However, the clinical research offers hope that milk thistle's proven ability to help fight liver disease makes it a viable liver cancer preventive method.


Anyone with advancing liver disease can benefit from this therapeutic supplement that has no known contraindications or interactions.

Epigenetics - An Individualized, Future Approach to Cancer Treatment

Epigenetics - An Individualized, Future Approach to Cancer Treatment by
Derek Gene Kroll


Trivial findings are immense in the scientific community, especially in the field of oncology. Much emphasis is aimed at building upon previous laboratory discoveries; let's use the treatment of cancer as a broad example.

As many of you know, it is now common to combine independently discovered chemotherapy treatments, with or without radiation and/or surgical intervention. The heart of cancer breakthroughs have stemmed from this methodical combination. In recent news, a new and stirring foundation for future therapeutic combinations has surfaced.

The discovery can be attributed to vigilant scrutiny of biological processes within the tumor cell. The review, in the March issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, focuses on a specialty known as epigenetics. Epigenetics is associated with inheritable disparity in gene expression while retaining the same base sequence of DNA.

This essentially allows the cells, while stably maintaining the same DNA sequence, to assume different characteristics. Epigenetics is most commonly associated with x-chromosome inactivation in females, gene silencing, and post-transcriptional modification of amino acids.
Tumor cells are identifiable by numerous intracellular processes. For relevance and simplicity, I will only briefly discuss DNA methylation. Epigenetic processes can be marked by this methylation, which is vital to proper cellular function.

Upon observing a metastatic tumor cell, one would find an increasing degree of hypomethylation as the tumor became more invasive. The actual comparison of DNA methylation (normal cells) and hypomethylation (tumor cells) was originally observed in 1983 during the research of colon cancer. Dr. Manel Esteller, who authored the more recent review, explained that the tumor cells were in a DNA methylation paradox depending on the location of the nucleic acid in question.

The varying locations of DNA methylation directly contribute to the disturbance of chromosomes, or mutations, and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, hence the abnormal behavior of tumor cells. How can this be related to future treatment options though?
Methylation can actually predict one's response to therapeutic treatment via protein analyzation.

The targeted protein is MGMT, also known as O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, which is known to be significant in DNA repair. Observing MGMT for its degree of methylation allows the scientist a unique look at their prognosis with respect to certain DNA damaging drugs. For example: if MGMT is found to be hypermethylated, one can deduce the benefit of introducing DNA damaging drugs because the tumor cell will not be able to repair the DNA, leading to its death.

In conclusion, epigenetic markers can provide great insight into the potential of certain chemotherapeutic treatments: stepping away from mere protocol steps and into more individualized medicine. After all, it is the building upon minute discoveries and postulated treatments that will lead to the next breakthrough in cancer treatment

Antioxidants To Prevent And Cure Cancer

Antioxidants To Prevent And Cure Cancer


Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world. Although it seems like a life-threatening disease, a lot of developments and findings in medicine, technology, and science are able to contribute to the prevention, proper diagnosis, and finding the cure necessary for each case.

Cancer is basically a group of several related diseases that start within your cells, which are your body's building blocks. Cells normally grow and divide to give way to newer ones that can help keep our bodies healthy. However, there are times when this process can go wrong.


This happens when old cells fail to die even if they should and there are newer cells in the body even if you do not really need them yet. Because of the extra cells, a mass of tissue forms, which is more commonly known as a tumor. The tumor can either be malignant or benign but only the malignant ones are cancerous.

It is important to note that this malfunction in cell metabolism is caused by several factors from our environment and lifestyle.

Through years of extensive research, scientists and medical experts realized that cancer is mainly caused by changes in our genes and abnormal cell metabolism that is brought about by our lifestyle and environment.


The changes in our genes are usually caused by our diet, smoking, exposure to UV rays from the sun, and exposure to carcinogenic substances. In some cases, the changes in your genes are inherited from your parents.

Still, it is important to take note that having an inherited cancer gene will make you susceptible to cancer. This only means that your chances of getting the disease are increased. Because of this, scientists and doctors are continuously examining the various factors that can affect your chances of developing cancer.

Nowadays, nutritionists and medical experts are recommending you to eat more fruits and vegetables as part of a healthier lifestyle. Basically, the idea is centered around providing your body with more means for detoxifying harmful toxins and substances from it. Aside from that, the antioxidants found in some fruits can help restore your body's natural functions especially when it comes to cell metabolism.

Antioxidants are helpful in cell protection against damage due to free radicals that can often lead to cancer. Using antioxidants, your body can stabilize the free radicals to prevent them from causing damage to your cells and your body in general. Among these antioxidants include lycopene, vitamins A, E, and C, and beta-carotene.

Laboratory and scientific evidence indicated that antioxidants are able to prevent or slow down your chances of developing cancer

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